By James C. Bobrow, MD
This part underwent significant revision for the 2008-2009 variation. part eleven stories the anatomy, body structure, embryology, and pathology of the lens. It additionally covers the epidemiology of cataracts and their assessment and administration in adults. additionally, an outline of lens and cataract surgical procedure is equipped, problems of cataract surgical procedure are mentioned, and cataract surgical procedure in certain occasions is explored. comprises many new pictures.
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Extra resources for 2008-2009 Basic and Clinical Science Course: Section 11: Lens and Cataract (Basic and Clinical Science Course 2008-2009)
This condition may also occur as an isolated hereditary abnormality or, occasionally, in association with Peters anomaly, Marfan syndrome, Alport syndrome, Lowe syndrome, or congenital rubella. People with Weill-Marchesani syndrome commonly CHAPTER 4: Embryology. 33 B A Figure 4-7 Microspherophakia. A, When the pupil is dilated, the entire lens equator can be seen at the slit lamp. B, Anterior dislocation of a microspherophakic lens. (PartA courtesyof KarlaJ. ) have small stature, short and stubby fingers, and broad hands with reduced joint mobility.
AdaptedwithpermissionfromHart WM Jr, ed. Adler's Physiology of the Eye: Clinical Application. 9th ed. 1 additional 36 molecules of ATP from each glucose molecule metabolized in the citric acid cycle (oxidative metabolism). Because of the low oxygen tension in the lens, only about 3% of the lens glucose passes through the Krebs citric acid cycle to produce ATP; however, even this low level of aerobic metabolism produces approximately 25% of the lens ATP. That the lens is not dependent on oxygen is demonstrated by its ability to sustain normal metabolism in a nitrogen environment.
CHAPTER 4 Embryology Normal Development The formation of the human crystalline lens begins very early in embryogenesis (Fig 4-1). At approximately 25 days of gestation, 2 lateral evaginations, called the optic vesicles, form from the forebrain, or diencephalon. As the optic vesicles enlarge and extend laterally, they become closely apposed and adherent to the surface ectoderm, a single layer of cuboidal cells, in 2 patches on either side of the head. Lens Placode The ectoderm cells that overlie the optic vesicles become columnar at approximately 27 days of gestation.
2008-2009 Basic and Clinical Science Course: Section 11: Lens and Cataract (Basic and Clinical Science Course 2008-2009) by James C. Bobrow, MD