By Ian D. Armour
A historical past of japanese Europe 1740-1918: Empires, international locations and Modernisation presents a entire, authoritative account of the zone in the course of a interval that accomplished with the 1st international battle. Ian Armour specializes in the 3 significant topics that experience outlined jap Europe within the glossy interval - empire, nationhood and modernisation - when chronologically tracing the emergence of japanese Europe as a different idea and position. distinctive insurance is given to the Habsburg, Ottoman, German and Russian Empires that struggled for dominance in this time.
In this fascinating new version, Ian Armour contains findings from new study into the character and origins of nationalism and the makes an attempt of supranational states to generate dynastic loyalties in addition to innovations of empire. Armours insightful advisor to early jap Europe considers the $64000 figures and governments, analyses the numerous occasions and discusses the socio-economic and cultural advancements which are the most important to a rounded knowing of the zone in that era.
Features of this new version include:
- an absolutely up to date and enlarged bibliography and notes
- 8 invaluable maps
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Additional info for A History of Eastern Europe 1740-1918: Empires, Nations and Modernisation
Herder’s emphasis on the historical origins of language, culture and the national (völkisch) identity of peoples was to give a powerful impetus to the development of nationalism, although Herder himself was hardly a nationalist but rather a humanitarian idealist. In particular Herder’s condemnation of multinational states as ‘patched-up contraptions’ and ‘lifeless monstrosities’5 which stifled the cultural development of their constituent peoples was to resonate throughout the nineteenth century.
An entirely different class was the lesser nobility or gentry class. This distinction is important for two reasons. 9 Many Polish and Hungarian nobles were wealthy, but many were not; indeed, at the lower end of the scale the ‘sandalled nobility’, so called because they could not afford leather boots, lived a life little different from that of peasants. Rich or poor, however, the nobility in Poland–Lithuania was the only class entitled to vote and to sit in the Sejm (the Polish parliament), while in the Hungarian Diet, nobles had an overwhelming predominance over townspeople; when Poles or Hungarians referred to the ‘nation’ in the eighteenth century, they meant this gentry class, not all Poles or Hungarians.
Before the eighteenth century the number of different peoples and languages had not posed an especial administrative problem. In an age where literacy was confined to a small social elite, it was still possible to operate a rudimentary tax collection and legal system by means of traditional customs and a traditionally accepted lingua franca. The Enlightenment changed all this. The diversity of peoples in each of Eastern Europe’s states was on its own an obstacle to their rulers’ attempts at enlightened reform.
A History of Eastern Europe 1740-1918: Empires, Nations and Modernisation by Ian D. Armour