By A.P.R. Howatt
This booklet strains the background of English language instructing correct as much as the origins of the communicative method, finishing with a dialogue of the impression of utilized linguistics on language instructing in either the US and Britain.
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Extra resources for A History of English Language Teaching
11 It is, however, highly likely that the categories in question are specificable only in terms of prototypes and not in terms of necessary and sufficient conditions for membership (Hansen, 1998a, ch. 3; also Pons Bordería, 1998, ch. III). A dynamic polysemy approach to DMs 12 41 Thus, modal particles, for instance, appear to be specific to the continental Germanic languages, although certain items in other languages may have meanings and functions which approximate those identified for the Germanic modal particles.
Hence, they cannot necessarily be generalized to other contexts. 9 Strictly speaking, Berrendonner (1983) speaks only of “pragmatic connectives”, so I am extending his claim to comprise the somewhat larger category of DMs. 10 That this is the case even with the use in (8) is shown by the fact that it possesses two forms, the plural seen in (8), and a singular, dis, which vary according to the number of individuals addressed and according to the social relationship between speaker and hearer, such that the singular signals an informal relationship with a single addressee, while the plural signals a plurality of addressees and/or a formal relationship.
This interpretation of the role of the “ground” and its relation to the semiotic triad is illustrated in Fig. 2. What Fig. 2 shows is that the (initial) dynamic interpretant is arrived at through a dialogic interplay between the sign and its context of appearance: on the one hand, the sign “as such” will convey a certain image of the context, by way of the conventional interpretive frames contained in what I call “ground 1”; and on the other hand, the manner in which speaker and hearer conceive of the specific context in which the sign appears, and which forms the content of “ground 2”, will influence the way in which the sign is understood.
A History of English Language Teaching by A.P.R. Howatt