By Fred Singleton

ISBN-10: 0521640695

ISBN-13: 9780521640695

This can be a moment version of the winning examine of Finland within the English language. a quick background of Finland strains the historic improvement of the rustic from its payment via the Finns within the first millennium advert to the current time, exploring Finland's prior reference to Sweden, the complicated courting with Russia that has ruled Finnish historical past some time past centuries, and the postwar achievements of the second one republic. This moment version has been revised and up to date via Emeritus Professor A. F. Upton, a number one student of Scandinavian heritage. It covers the impression of the break-up of the Soviet Union and brings occasions as much as Finland's admission to the eu Union in 1995.

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Sigismund dreamt of a Polish-Russian alliance against Sweden which would eventually recover the Swedish throne for his branch of the Vasa family. The Poles soon became unpopular in Russia and Sigismund7 s victory proved to be hollow. Within a year, de la Gardie's armies were advancing in Inkeri. Between 1611 and 1613 the fortresses of Kakisalmi, Novgorod, Ladoga and Tikhvin in the area between Lakes Ladoga and Ilmen; and Kopore, Jama and Gdov, which lay along the Estonian frontier between the Gulf of Finland and Lake Peipus, all fell to the Swedes.

Infiltration across the ill-defined Pahkinasaari line also occurred in the far north, where Swedish and Finnish settlers moved into Ostrobothnia and Lapland in search of salmon and furs. One group of traders who played an important part in this movement were the people known as Pirkkalaiset (Birkarlar). They were fur trappers, hunters and fishermen who came originally from Sweden and occupied the settlement of Pirkkala, on the shores of Pyhajarvi, a few kilometres to the west of the present city of Tampere.

Finland was a buffer zone between the rival powers of Sweden and Novgorod and also came under pressure from the Baltic Germans, who penetrated into the lands south of the Gulf of Finland. The Finns, unlike their powerful neighbours, had not at this time established a state of their own. They were divided between the three main groups - the Suomalaiset, the Hamalaiset and the Karjalaiset who were often in conflict amongst themselves. The legends tell of a crusade, led by King Erik of Sweden (accompanied by Bishop Henry of Uppsala) in 1155.

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A Short History of Finland by Fred Singleton

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