By Angela Randels-Thorp, David Liss
Acid-Base and Electrolyte instruction manual for Veterinary Technicians provides a simple to appreciate but entire method of acid-base and electrolyte balance.
- Covers the body structure of fluids and their influence on acid-base and electrolyte balance
- Offers exact details on handling acid-base and electrolyte derangements in disease
- Includes entry to a significant other site with case reports and a number of selection questions
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Extra info for Acid-base and electrolyte handbook for veterinary technicians
A decrease in chloride can be seen in patients with vomiting, use of loop diuretics, hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing’s disease) and post steroid administration. Chloride responsive metabolic alkalosis is most common as it is seen in patients with vomiting, use of diuretics and post hypercapnic syndrome. It also can be seen in patients with chronic respiratory acidosis because of hypoventilation. In patients with decreased respirations (hypoventilation) there is an increase in the hypoxic state of the patient.
Level of sodium is approximately 146 mEq/L in dogs, and 156 mEq/L in cats. The normal chloride value is 105–115 mEq/L in dogs and 115–125 mEq/L in cats (DiBartola 2012). Disorders of chloride can be divided into either artifactual or true derangements and must be evaluated in relation to changes of sodium and water balance. To obtain a more accurate picture, the chloride value must also be corrected. If the change is due to free water, the changes of sodium and chloride are proportional. 1. The values used for normal sodium levels in this formula are 146 mEq/L and 156 mEq/L for canines and felines respectively.
Nursing care/monitoring Nursing care should be aimed at monitoring the hydration and neurologic status of the patient as corrective treatments are initiated. Hydration and volume status should be monitored through regular assessment of respiratory rate, heart rate, pulse quality, skin turgor, mucous membrane color and moistness, capillary refill time (CRT), and blood pressure. Daily weighing of the patient should also be carried out at the same time each day to monitor overall fluid balance. Polyuria and polydipsia are common in these patients due to the effects of osmotic diuresis, so it is vital to quantitate urinary and other losses to ensure adequate fluid resuscitation.
Acid-base and electrolyte handbook for veterinary technicians by Angela Randels-Thorp, David Liss