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Bear b; ZooAnimal *pz = &b; Bear *pb = &b; Each addresses the same first byte of the Bear object. The difference is that the address span of pb encompasses the entire Bear object, while the span of pz encompasses only the ZooAnimal subobject of Bear. 30 31 pz cannot directly access any members other than those present within the ZooAnimal subobject, except through the virtual mechanism: // illegal: cell_block not a member // of ZooAnimal, although we ``know'' // pz currently addresses a Bear object pz->cell_block; // okay: an explicit downcast (( Bear* )pz)->cell_block; // better: but a run-time operation if ( Bear* pb2 = dynamic_cast< Bear* >( pz )) pb2->cell_block; // ok: cell_block a member of Bear pb->cell_block; When we write pz->rotate(); the type of pz determines the following at compile time: • The fixed, available interface (that is, pz may invoke only the ZooAnimal public interface) • The access level of that interface (for example, rotate() is a public member of ZooAnimal) The type of the object that pz addresses at each point of execution determines the instance of rotate() invoked.
When the class declares one or more virtual functions 4. When the class is derived from an inheritance chain in which one or more base classes are virtual In instances 1 and 2, the implementation needs to insert invocations of the member or base class copy constructors inside the synthesized copy constructor. The synthesized copy constructor for class Word in the previous section illustrates case 1. Cases 3 and 4 are slightly more subtle. I briefly look at those next. 42 43 Resetting the Virtual Table Pointer Recall that two program "augmentations" occur during compilation whenever a class declares one or more virtual functions.
At least in the case of a synthesized copy constructor, the possibility of program side effects is nil and the optimization would seem to make good sense. What about in the case of a copy constructor explicitly provided by the class designer? (This is actually a rather contentious issue. ) To summarize: We have looked at the four conditions under which bitwise copy semantics do not hold for a class and the default copy constructor, if undeclared, is considered nontrivial. Under these conditions, the compiler, in the absence of a declared copy constructor, must synthesize a copy constructor in order to correctly implement the initialization of one class object with another.
Addison Wesley Inside The C Plus Plus Object Model