By Valerie Walker, J. D. Pickard (auth.), L. Symon, J. Brihaye, B. Guidetti, F. Loew, J. D. Miller, H. Nornes, E. Pásztor, B. Pertuiset, M. G. Yaşargil (eds.)
As an addition to the eu postgraduate education approach for younger neurosurgeons we started to submit in 1974 this sequence dedicated to Advances and Technical criteria in Neurosurgery which was once later backed through the eu organization of Neurosurgical Societies. the truth that the English language is definitely with a purpose to turning into the foreign medium at ecu medical meetings is a brilliant asset by way of mutual figuring out. for that reason we now have determined to put up all contributions in English, whatever the local language of the authors. All contributions are submitted to the total editorial board prior to booklet of any quantity. isn't meant to compete with the guides of unique Our sequence medical papers in different neurosurgical journals. Our purpose is, quite, to provide fields of neurosurgery and similar parts during which very important contemporary advances were made. The contributions are written by way of experts within the given fields and represent the 1st a part of each one quantity. within the moment a part of every one quantity, we submit specified descriptions of ordinary operative techniques, supplied by means of skilled clinicians; in those articles the authors describe the strategies they hire and clarify the benefits, problems and hazards eager about many of the tactics. This half is meant basically to help younger neurosurgeons of their publish graduate education. in spite of the fact that, we're confident that it'll even be helpful to skilled, totally knowledgeable neurosurgeons.
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Additional resources for Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery: Volume 2
There was an initial latent period of inactivity from 0 to 15 minutes in both occluded groups, but with longer periods of reperfusion the indomethacin-treated gerbils became much more active than the untreated group. However the behaviour of the indomethacin-treated animals could not be considered normal, since they exhibited sustained hyperactivity. Crockard's group have also studied ischaemia in a gerbil model (Crockard, Bhakoo et al. 1982, Bhakoo et al. 1984a, b). They quantified brain prostaglandins during bilateral carotid ligation, and found increases in PGF 2 u in all areas of ischaemia (findings at variance with those of Spagnuolo et al.
Prostacyclin consistently relaxed the middle cerebral artery contracted by the prostaglandin endoperoxide analogue U-44069, whereas the basilar artery was almost unaffected. In human pial arteries with low resting tension, prostacyclin had no effects in concentrations below 10- 6 M, whereas higher concentrations induced contractions. In potassium-contracted preparations, prostacyclin in concentrations below 10- 6 M produced relaxation; in higher concentrations further contraction was induced. Human pial arteries contracted by PGF 2 u, U-44069, noradrenaline, or 5-hydroxytryptamine, consistently relaxed in response to prostacyclin (less than 10 -6 M) U ski et al.
Indomethacin has much less effect on any other aspect of cerebrovascular reactivity yet examined except, possibly, on reactive hyperaemia. However, not all these responses have yet been adequately explored. In the conscious rat, there is a highly significant correlation between the rate of glucose utilization and blood flow in different cerebral structures. The relationship between blood flow and glucose utilization is fundamentally altered following indomethacin (McCulloch et al. 1982). However, there is still coupling between the two parameters, and the hierarchy of blood flow levels present in normal animals (that is, greatest in primary auditory areas, lowest in regions of white matter) is maintained following indomethacin.
Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery: Volume 2 by Valerie Walker, J. D. Pickard (auth.), L. Symon, J. Brihaye, B. Guidetti, F. Loew, J. D. Miller, H. Nornes, E. Pásztor, B. Pertuiset, M. G. Yaşargil (eds.)