By Pravin M. Shah (auth.), Navin C. Nanda MD, Reinhard Schlief (eds.)
` Nanda and Schlief have edited and produced an authoritative and updated reference publication for either skilled and green echocardiologists. I strongly suggest this booklet to these drawn to this box. '
International magazine of Cardiology, forty five (1994)
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Extra info for Advances in Echo Imaging Using Contrast Enhancement
5 and 10 MHz. -------Qal7Ta2, - - Qs l7Ta 2. its physical cross section scattering. De Jong et al. reinterpreted these results from the point of view of potential future applications. If a system of two or more transducers could be employed, this differential harmonic behavior is believed to offer opportunities to distinguish between small and large bubbles, or between tissue contrasts and bubbles in blood vessels. Effects of bubble concentrations It is generally appreciated that theoretical analysis of single scatterers in a liquid is inadequate for modeling of a bubble cloud.
I;-! FREQUENCY RATIO (FREQUENCYIRESONANCE FREQUENCY) Figure 9. Sound speed ratio versus frequency ratio for water plus a collection of single sized bubbles. Km = (1 - x)Kt + xKg . (23) The mixture's speed of sound is then c = (PmKm)-1I2. (24) At 1% air in the mixture, the decrease in liquid velocity of sound was found to be 90%. Most recently, both Ophir and Parker  and deJong et al.  presented, for a liquid with gas bubbles, somewhat similar relations for a mean mixture speed of sound, which can be quite different from the sound velocity in the bubble-free (incompressible) medium.
4:1II-95. 41. Tickner EC, Rasor NS. An instrument for the noninvasive assessment of pulmonary hypertension. Advances in Bioengineering ASNE 1978;101-3. 42. Ooi KK, Acosta AJ. The utilization of specially tailored air bubbles as statis pressure sensors in a jet. Trans ASME I J Fluid Eng 1983;106 no. 4:459-65. 43. Shima A, Rajvanjhi SC, Tsujino T. Study of nonlinear oscillations of bubbles in PowellEyring fluids. J Acoust Soc Am 1985;77(5):1702-9. 42 Samuel Meerbaum 44. Hsieh DY, Plessel MS. On the propagation of sound in liquid containing bubbles.
Advances in Echo Imaging Using Contrast Enhancement by Pravin M. Shah (auth.), Navin C. Nanda MD, Reinhard Schlief (eds.)