By Shimon Ullman

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PerceptiOn-acHon interactions. se/Ullman: Against direct perception perception. , Reed, Shaw & Todd). 7. Cognftlve problem-solving tn perception. Johansson et al. sketch what they consider to be the accepted distinction between direct and indirect theories of perception. ation contrasts the "direct recording of informa­ tion" with cognitive problem solving, or reasoning-like activi­ ty, that draws on past eltperience to supplement the raw material in the visual stimulus.

Of Information provided by the optic array is not a completely new ( 1976), with the image, and then displaying the edge positions in 'Ntlite values·(itl black). Note how, in this representation, the exact place­ tion; others have studied the impression of depth arising from moving Gibson's more recent treatment of perception as the direct pick-up departure. For many aspects of perceptual experience an adequate explanation (at the psychological level) is given by a description of the properties in the incident light 'Ntllch are correlated with lhe percept (the color qualities of nowers or human skin ere explained by the way these surfaces act on the n i cident light - cf.

Computation has deftnite meaning only n i mathematics (or logic), and is as yet only a vague and misleading metaphor In cognition. For instance, the Gibson­ ian "mapping" Is legitimately a computation In a formal systems sense, but Ullman wants to deny that this kind of computation is a computa­ tion. Use of this vacuous term lulls one Into a false sense of security. since in psychology its use is nonexplanatory, represenng it only one possible description of data to be explained rather than constituting an explanation.

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Against direct perception (Article, Peer Commentary, Author's Response) by Shimon Ullman


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