By Jennifer I. Lim

ISBN-10: 082470682X

ISBN-13: 9780824706821

ISBN-10: 0824744039

ISBN-13: 9780824744038

This reference showcases exudative and nonexudative AMD therapy innovations utilizing argon and diode lasers, submacular and macular translocation surgical procedure, photodynamic remedy, radiation, feeder vessel remedy, thermotherapy, and antiangiogenesis medicines. together with one hundred sixty colour illustrations, Age-Related Macular Degeneration will gain scientific ophthalmologists, pathologists, physiologists, and pharmacologists; optometrists; telephone and molecular biologists and biochemists; retinal experts; AMD researchers; and graduate and clinical tuition scholars in those disciplines.

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The retinal pigment epithelium) to initiate a response. Innate immunity is triggered by a preprogrammed, antigen-independent cellular response, determined by the preexistence of receptors for a category of stimuli, leading to generation of biochemical mediators that recruit additional inflammatory cells. These cells remove the offending stimulus in a nonspecific manner via phagocytosis or enzymatic degradation. The key concept is that the stimuli of innate immunity interact with receptors on monocytes, neutrophils, or parenchymal cells that have been genetically predetermined by evolution to recognize and respond to conserved molecular patterns or “motifs” on different triggering stimuli.

The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration. Surv Ophthalmol 2000;45:115–134. 79. Frank RN. “Oxidative protector” enzymes in the macular retinal pigment epithelium of aging eyes and eyes with age-related macular degeneration. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 1998;96:634–689. 80. Holz FG, Schutt F, Kopitz J, Eldred GE, Kruse FE, Volcker HE, Cantz M. Inhibition of lysosomal degradative functions in RPE cells by a retinoid component of lipofuscin. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1999;40:737–743.

Activation of Innate Immunity a. Cellular Injury as a Trigger of Innate Immunity. Not only can immune responses cause cellular injury, but cellular responses to nonimmune injury are also common initiators of innate immunity (1–4,99,100). Injury can be defined as tissue exposure to any physical and/or biochemical stimulus that alters preexisting homeostasis to produce a physiological cellular response. In addition to injury stimuli produced by the immune effector and amplification systems described above, nonimmune injurious stimuli include physical injury (heat, light, mechanical) or biochemical stimulation (hypoxia, pH change, oxidants, chemical mediators, cytokines) (100).

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Age-Related Macular Degeneration by Jennifer I. Lim

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