By Pieter Muysken

ISBN-10: 0521771684

ISBN-13: 9780521771689

This booklet presents an in-depth research of different ways that bilingual audio system swap from one language to a different during dialog. Pieter Muysken identifies 3 exact styles of combining and explores how various blending options depend upon the contrasting grammatical houses of the languages concerned, the measure of bilingual competence of the speaker and diverse social components. The publication synthesizes an enormous array of modern learn in a speedily turning out to be box of research that has a lot to bare concerning the constitution and serve as of language.

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In M oroccan Arabic/Dutch code­ mixing situations, apparently, a D utch nominal complex counts as equivalent to a M oroccan Arabic one, with respect to an external governor. Thus we need to incorporate a notion o f categorial equivalence or congruence, along the lines o f Sebba (1998). g. Bentahila and Davies (1983), Joshi (1985), and Myers-Scotton (1993b). Functional categories impose quite specific restrictions on their structural environment and are thus responsible for most specific properties of indi­ vidual languages, as I will argue in the next chapter.

The notion of L-marking has the theoretical attraction that the language indices are induced from the lexicon. In this revised view code-mixing is possible where the chain of local dependencies resulting from L-marking is broken. If we assume that inflection (INFL) does not L-mark, that determiners (Det) and quantifiers (Q) are heads (hence DetP and QP) but not L-markers, and that V does not L-mark time adverbs, then it accounts for the cases listed. As it turns out, however, even this restricted version runs into grave difficulties, due to abundant more recent counter-evidence.

In this case categorial equivalence has the same effects as some version of the already mentioned Free Morpheme Constraint, which holds that: (16) Codes may be switched after any constituent in discourse provided that constituent is not a bound morpheme (Poplack 1980: 585-6) If we reformulate this as ‘code-mixing may involve any constituent’, needed in any case to exclude disallowed examples such as *eat-iendo, we can look at the effects of word order and bound/free status along the lines sketched.

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Bilingual Speech: A Typology of Code-Mixing by Pieter Muysken

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