By Christine Gunlogson

ISBN-10: 0203502019

ISBN-13: 9780203502013

ISBN-10: 0415967813

ISBN-13: 9780415967815

This booklet is worried with the which means and use of 2 different types of declarative sentences: 1) it is raining? 2) it really is raining. the variation among (1) and (2) is intonational: (1) has a last rise--indicated via the query mark--while (2) ends with a fall. Christine Gunlogson's critical declare is that the which means and use of either types of sentences has to be understood when it comes to the that means in their defining formal parts, specifically declarative sentence kind and emerging as opposed to falling intonation. Gunlogson helps that declare via an research of using declaratives as questions. On one hand, Gunlogson demonstrates that emerging and falling declaratives percentage a facet of traditional which means caused by their declarative shape, distinguishing them either from the corresponding polar interrogative (Is it raining?) and constraining their use as questions. nonetheless, considering the fact that (1) and (2) represent a minimum pair, differing in basic terms in intonation, systematic ameliorations in personality and serve as among them-in specific, the relative "naturalness" of (1) as a query in comparison to (2) --must be positioned within the distinction among the autumn and the increase. To account for those units of changes, Gunlogson supplies a compositional account of emerging and falling declaratives less than which declarative shape expresses dedication to the propositional content material of the declarative. emerging as opposed to falling intonation on declaratives is chargeable for attribution of the dedication to the Addressee as opposed to the Speaker, respectively. the result's an inherent contextual "bias" linked to declaratives, which constitutes the an important aspect of distinction with interrogatives. The compositional research is applied within the framework of context replace semantics (Heim 1982 and others), utilizing an articulated model of the typical floor (Stalnaker 1978) that distinguishes the commitments of the person discourse members. regulations at the use of declaratives as questions, in addition to alterations among emerging and falling declaratives as questions, are proven to persist with from this account. Gunlogson argues that neither emerging nor falling declaratives are inherently questioning--rather, the wondering functionality of declaratives arises during the interplay of sentence kind, intonation, and context.

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Extra resources for True to Form: Rising and Falling Declaratives as Questions in English (Outstanding Dissertations in Linguistics)

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This and other notational conventions are summarized in (73). (73 Notation ). a.. Sdecl : rising declarative locution b.. Sdecl : falling declarative locution c.. Sinterr : rising pphlar interrogative locution d.. S: ranges over {Sdecl, Sinterr} e.. L, S: ranges over { Sdecl, Sdecl, Sinterr} f.. : ranges over { , } g.. csx: ranges over {csA, csB} Sdecl, Sdecl, and Sinterr may be considered logical representations of locutions with the given syntactic types and intonational categories. I comment further on this pphint at the end of the section.

A.. Sdecl : rising declarative locution b.. Sdecl : falling declarative locution c.. Sinterr : rising pphlar interrogative locution d.. S: ranges over {Sdecl, Sinterr} e.. L, S: ranges over { Sdecl, Sdecl, Sinterr} f.. : ranges over { , } g.. csx: ranges over {csA, csB} Sdecl, Sdecl, and Sinterr may be considered logical representations of locutions with the given syntactic types and intonational categories. I comment further on this pphint at the end of the section. MODELING BIAS AND NEUTRALITY 33 The CCP of a declarative sentence is defined with respect to an individual csx, as in (74), without regard to the identity of X.

She ordered coffee or not. a. b. c. Is it raining or not? #It’s raining or not? #It’s raining or not. 20 TRUE TO FORM In fact, the pphint is more general. Rising declarative questions do not make good alternative questions of any sort. The interrogative in (43a) can be read in two ways, depending on intonation and phrasing: on one reading it asks which of the two beverages was ordered, while on the second the question is whether a beverage was ordered at all. The rising declarative in (43b), as a question, has only the second kind of reading; the falling declarative is also unambiguous (though as usual for falling declaratives, it does not easily receive a question reading).

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True to Form: Rising and Falling Declaratives as Questions in English (Outstanding Dissertations in Linguistics) by Christine Gunlogson


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